Toxic masculinity can actually be harmful to men’s health, causing a host of health problems in later life, according to a new study. The study, published in the journal Sex Roles, was conducted by researchers at Michigan State University (MSU). MSU assistant sociology professor Stef Shuster defined toxic masculinity as a pressure on men to be “autonomous and not showing a lot of emotion”. The American Psychological Association (APA) previously said it also includes “emotional stoicism, homophobia, not showing vulnerability, self-reliance, and competitiveness”. The team of researchers analysed around 5,500 older women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey, which administered the Hegemonic Masculinity for Older Men Scale, meaning that they looked at “masculinity on a spectrum”. The higher men score on the scale, the less likely they were to seek help or change their views.